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The Tharsis bulge on Mars is an enormous volcanic province that hosts the largest volcanoes in the Solar System, which are up to 21 km high. The enormous Valles Marineris canyon system is visible in the center of the image, east of the Tharsis bulge. Thaumasia is the remnant of a large igneous feature. The hot spot produces voluminous quantities of magma in the lower crust that is released to the surface as highly fluid, basaltic lava. Tharsis can have many meanings depending on historical and scientific context. Morphological and structural data from the whole Tharsis province suggest that a number of shallow grabens radially oriented about the Tharsis bulge on Mars are underlain by dykes, which define giant radiating swarms similar to, e.g. A more recent study reported in Nature agreed with the polar wander, but the authors thought the eruptions at Tharsis happened at a slightly different time. "The Formation of Tharsis on Mars: What the Line-of-Sight Gravity Is Telling Us", "More Speculations on the Origin of the Tharsis Rise. The volcanoes formed where the up-welling mantle pushed holes into the overlying crust. Tanaka, K.L. The Tharsis bulge is the largest magmatic/volcanic center on Mars and in the solar system, having a volume of ~ 3 × 10 8 km 3, with the majority of its mass emplaced more than 3.7 billion years ago.The igneous history of Tharsis has been implicated in the generation of an atmosphere and hydrosphere capable of clement conditions on early Mars. For the village in Spain, see. It is approximately 4,000 km across,10 km high, and contains 12 large volcanoes. rising material in the mantle of Mars. Lower are the three Tharsis Montes: Arsia Mons at bottom, Pavonis Mons at center, and Ascraeus Mons at top. Growth of the Tharsis bulge, the largest volcano-tectonic centre on Mars, started during the Noachian epoch more than 3.7 billion years ago. Thaumasia, and likely the bulk of the entire Tharsis bulge, was in place during the Noachian. Such shifts, known as true polar wander (TPW), would have caused dramatic climate changes over vast areas of Mars. The Tharsis bulge is the largest magmatic/volcanic center on Mars and in the solar system, having a volume of ~ 3 × 10 8 km 3 , with the majority of its mass emplaced more than 3.7 billion years ago. [18] These boundaries enclose a broad high plateau and shallow interior basin that include Syria, Sinai, and Solis Plana (see list of plains on Mars). A colorized image of the surface of Mars taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Olympus Mons is not part of the Tharsis Bulge but can be seen to the left of the Bulge. The largest of the four, Olympus Mons, is at bottom right. The tallest volcano on the planet, Olympus Mons, is often associated with the Tharsis region but is actually located off the western edge of the plateau. Olympus Mons reaches an astonishing height of 16 miles (26 kilometers) - three times as tall as Mount Everest. [24] Martian magmas also likely contain significant amounts of sulfur and chlorine. According to the standard view, Tharsis overlies a hot spot, similar to the one thought to underlie the island of Hawaii. Four massive volcanoes make up the Tharsis Bulge on Mars. Morphological and structural data from the whole Tharsis province suggest that a number of shallow grabens radially oriented about the Tharsis bulge on Mars are underlain by dykes, which define giant radiating swarms similar to, e.g. The Tharsis Bulge on Mars is most likely the result of. Alba Mons is so large and topographically distinct that it can almost be treated as an entire volcanic province unto itself. Why do we think Mercury has so many tremendous cliffs? Images of Mars have shown a large number of these tectonic features concentrated on or near the Tharsis region. Such shifts, known as true polar wander (TPW), would have caused dramatic climate changes over vast areas of Mars. Morphological and structural data from the whole Tharsis province suggest that a number of shallow grabens radially oriented about the Tharsis bulge on Mars are underlain by dykes, which define giant radiating swarms similar to, e.g. (2010). The Tharsis Bulge on Mars. Mathematical analysis shows that volcanic spreading operates on volcanoes at a wide range of scales and is theoretically similar to the larger-scale rifting that occurs at mid-ocean ridges (divergent plate boundaries). The Tharsis bulge, as big as North America, includes several huge volcanoes; Olympus Mons is more than 20 kilometers high and 500 kilometers in diameter. [3] Called the Tharsis bulge or Tharsis rise, this broad, elevated region dominates the western hemisphere of Mars and is the largest topographic feature on the planet, after the global dichotomy. As a volcano grows in size and weight, the stress field underneath the volcano changes from compressional to extensional. Mount Etna is a complex spreading volcano that is characterized by three main structural features: a volcanic rift system that crosses the summit in a north-northeast direction; a peripheral compression belt (thrust front) surrounding the base of the volcano; and an east-northeast trending system of transtensional (oblique normal) faults that connect the summit rift to the peripheral thrust front. the Mackenzie dyke swarm of the Canadian shield. [39] The volcano's peak contains an array of steep summit cones, which are frequently active. Between the northern and southern portions of the Tharsis bulge lies a relatively narrow, northeast-trending region that may be considered Tharsis proper or central Tharsis. ESA/DLR/FU Berlin/Justin Cowart. 11th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; LPI: Houston, TX, Abstract #1348", "Global Mineralogical and Aqueous Mars History Derived from OMEGA/Mars Express Data", "New Biggest Volcano in the Solar System? Mechanisms for graben formation are proposed, and the depth, width, and height of the associated dykes are … 11. By developing models, we showed that loading of Mars by Tharsis explains much of the global shape … [11][12] The oldest part of the northern rise consists of a broad topographic ridge that corresponds to the highly fractured terrain of Ceraunius Fossae. Exhalations from Tharsis and other volcanic centers on the planet are likely responsible for an early period of Martian time (the Theiikian[28]) when sulfuric acid weathering produced abundant hydrated sulfate minerals such as kieserite and gypsum. Approximately half of Mars consists of high elevation terrain which is heavily cratered. 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