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An estimated mean annual incremental investment of around 1.5% of global gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) for the energy sector is indicated between 2016 and 2035, as well as about 2.5% of global GFCF for other development infrastructure that could also address SDG implementation. These ranges reflect both uncertainties in technological development and strategic mitigation portfolio choices. {4.3.1, 4.3.4}, Global and regional land-use and ecosystems transitions and associated changes in behaviour that would be required to limit warming to 1.5°C can enhance future adaptation and land-based agricultural and forestry mitigation potential. The faster reduction of net CO2 emissions in 1.5°C compared to 2°C pathways is predominantly achieved by measures that result in less CO2 being produced and emitted, and only to a smaller degree through additional CDR. Equity has procedural and distributive dimensions and requires fairness in burden sharing both between generations and between and within nations. By 2050, the carbon intensity of electricity decreases to −92 to +11 gCO2 MJ−1 (minimum–maximum range) from about 140 gCO2 MJ−1 in 2020, and electricity covers 34–71% (minimum–maximum range) of final energy across 1.5°C pathways with no or limited overshoot from about 20% in 2020. Changes include increases in both land and ocean temperatures, as well as more frequent heatwaves in most land regions (high confidence). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) state that ; ‘Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic (produced by humans) greenhouse gas emissions’ Examples of human activities contributing to climate change include; The interactions of climate change and climate responses with sustainable development including sustainable development impacts at 1.5°C and 2°C, the synergies and tradeoffs of mitigation and adaptation with the Sustainable Development Goals/SDGs, and the possibilities for sustainable and equitable low carbon, climate-resilient development pathways. Global and Regional Climate Changes and Associated Hazards, Regional Temperatures on Land, Including Extremes, Observed and attributed changes in regional temperature means and extremes, Projected changes in regional temperature means and extremes at 1.5°C versus 2°C of global warming, Regional Precipitation, Including Heavy Precipitation and Monsoons, Observed and attributed changes in regional precipitation, Projected changes in regional precipitation at 1.5°C versus 2°C of global warming, Projected changes in drought and dryness at 1.5°C versus 2°C, Observed and attributed changes in runoff and river flooding, Projected changes in runoff and river flooding at 1.5°C versus 2°C of global warming, Tropical Cyclones and Extratropical Storms, Observed Impacts and Projected Risks in Natural and Human Systems, Freshwater Resources (Quantity and Quality), Extreme hydrological events (floods and droughts), Changes in species range, abundance and extinction, Changes in ecosystem function, biomass and carbon stocks, Summary of implications for ecosystem services, Warming and stratification of the surface ocean, Projected risks and adaptation options for oceans under global warming of 1.5°C or 2°C above pre-industrial levels, Framework organisms (tropical corals, mangroves and seagrass), Ocean foodwebs (pteropods, bivalves, krill and fin fish), Key ecosystem services (e.g., carbon uptake, coastal protection, and tropical coral reef recreation), Coastal and Low-Lying Areas, and Sea Level Rise, Food, Nutrition Security and Food Production Systems (Including Fisheries and Aquaculture), Projected risk at 1.5°C and 2°C of global warming, Livelihoods and Poverty, and the Changing Structure of Communities, The changing structure of communities: migration, displacement and conflict, Summary of Projected Risks at 1.5°C and 2°C of Global Warming, Avoided Impacts and Reduced Risks at 1.5°C Compared with 2°C of Global Warming, Aggregated Avoided Impacts and Reduced Risks at 1.5°C versus 2°C of Global Warming, Regional Economic Benefit Analysis for the 1.5°C versus 2°C Global Goals, Reducing Hotspots of Change for 1.5°C and 2°C of Global Warming, Avoiding Regional Tipping Points by Achieving More Ambitious Global Temperature Goals, Heatwaves, unprecedented heat and human health, Agricultural systems: livestock in the tropics and subtropics, Implications of Different 1.5°C and 2°C Pathways, Gradual versus Overshoot in 1.5°C Scenarios, Non-CO2 Implications and Projected Risks of Mitigation Pathways, Risks arising from land-use changes in mitigation pathways, Biophysical feedbacks on regional climate associated with land-use changes, Atmospheric compounds (aerosols and methane), Implications Beyond the End of the Century, Earth systems and 1.5°C of global warming, Physical and chemical characteristics of a 1.5°C warmer world, Accelerating the Global Response to Climate Change, Pathways Compatible with 1.5°C: Starting Points for Strengthening Implementation, Implications for Implementation of 1.5°C-Consistent Pathways, Challenges and Opportunities for Mitigation Along the Reviewed Pathways, Implications for Adaptation Along the Reviewed Pathways, Mitigation: historical rates of change and state of decoupling, Systemic Changes for 1.5°C-Consistent Pathways, Options for adapting electricity systems to 1.5°C, Carbon dioxide capture and storage in the power sector, Urban and Infrastructure System Transitions, Urban infrastructure, buildings and appliances, Sustainable urban water and environmental services, Green urban infrastructure and ecosystem services, CO2 capture, utilization and storage in industry, Overarching Adaptation Options Supporting Adaptation Transitions, Population health and health system adaptation options, Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), Enhanced weathering (EW) and ocean alkalinization, Direct air carbon dioxide capture and storage (DACCS), Implementing Far-Reaching and Rapid Change, Institutions and their capacity to invoke far-reaching and rapid change, Interactions and processes for multilevel governance, Capacity for policy design and implementation, Monitoring, reporting, and review institutions, Co-operative institutions and social safety nets, Enabling Lifestyle and Behavioural Change, Strategies and policies to promote actions on climate change, Acceptability of policy and system changes, Technologies as enablers of climate action, The role of government in 1.5°C-consistent climate technology policy, Technology transfer in the Paris Agreement, Strengthening Policy Instruments and Enabling Climate Finance, The core challenge: cost-efficiency, coordination of expectations and distributive effects, Carbon pricing: necessity and constraints, Regulatory measures and information flows, Scaling up climate finance and de-risking low-emission investments, Financial challenge for basic needs and adaptation finance, Towards integrated policy packages and innovative forms of financial cooperation, Assessing Feasibility of Options for Accelerated Transitions, Assessing mitigation options for limiting warming to 1.5˚C against feasibility dimensions, Enabling conditions for implementation of mitigation options towards 1.5˚C, Synergies and Trade-Offs between Adaptation and Mitigation, Sustainable Development, SDGs, Poverty Eradication and Reducing Inequalities, Poverty, Equality and Equity Implications of a 1.5°C Warmer World, Impacts and Risks of a 1.5°C Warmer World: Implications for Poverty and Livelihoods, Avoided Impacts of 1.5°C versus 2°C Warming for Poverty and Inequality, Risks from 1.5°C versus 2°C Global Warming and the Sustainable Development Goals, Sustainable Development in Support of Climate Adaptation, Synergies and Trade-Offs between Adaptation Options and Sustainable Development, Adaptation Pathways towards a 1.5°C Warmer World and Implications for Inequalities, Synergies and Trade-Offs between Mitigation Options and Sustainable Development, Energy Demand: Mitigation Options to Accelerate Reduction in Energy Use and Fuel Switch, Energy Supply: Accelerated Decarbonization, Land-based agriculture, forestry and ocean: mitigation response options and carbon dioxide removal, Sustainable Development Implications of 1.5°C and 2°C Mitigation Pathways, Sustainable Development Pathways to 1.5°C, Integration of Adaptation, Mitigation and Sustainable Development, Pathways for Adaptation, Mitigation and Sustainable Development, Development trajectories, sharing of efforts and cooperation, Country and community strategies and experiences, Conditions for Achieving Sustainable Development, Eradicating Poverty and Reducing Inequalities in 1.5°C Warmer Worlds, Finance and Technology Aligned with Local Needs, Attention to Issues of Power and Inequality. Other feedbacks, such as landward migration of wetlands and the adaptation of infrastructure, remain important (medium confidence). {5.5.3.3, Cross-Chapter Box 13, 5.6.3} Attention to power asymmetries and unequal opportunities for development, among and within countries, is key to adopting 1.5°C-compatible development pathways that benefit all populations (high confidence). {3.4.4, 3.4.5, 3.4.6, Box 3.1, Box 3.4, Box 3.5, Cross-Chapter Box 6 in this chapter}, Land use and land-use change emerge as critical features of virtually all mitigation pathways that seek to limit global warming to 1.5°C (high confidence). Regions with particularly large benefits could include the Mediterranean and the Caribbean (medium confidence). In particular, reforestation could be associated with significant co-benefits if implemented in a manner than helps restore natural ecosystems (high confidence). The land footprint per tonne of CO2 removed is higher for AR than for BECCS, but given the low levels of current deployment, the speed and scales required for limiting warming to 1.5°C pose a considerable implementation challenge, even if the issues of public acceptance and absence of economic incentives were to be resolved (high agreement, medium evidence). For global warming from 1.5°C to 2°C, risks across energy, food, and water sectors could overlap spatially and temporally, creating new – and exacerbating current – hazards, exposures, and vulnerabilities that could affect increasing numbers of people and regions (medium confidence). “  – Antoine de Saint Exupéry, Citadelle, 1948. How are Risks at 1.5°C and Higher Levels of Global Warming Assessed in this Chapter? Most land regions will see more hot days, especially in the tropics. Global climate change projections. {5.3.3}, The deployment of mitigation options consistent with 1.5°C pathways leads to multiple synergies across a range of sustainable development dimensions. Chapter 3 explores observed impacts and projected risks to a range of natural and human systems, with a focus on how risk levels change from 1.5°C to 2°C of global warming. Enter Into Dialogue With Youth To Secure India’s Future, Disha Ravi, Sophie Scholl And The Unravelling Of Indian Fascism, Keep Countercurrents Alive ! {3.3.2.2, 3.3.6–9, 3.4.3.2, 3.4.4.2, 3.4.4.5, 3.4.4.12, 3.4.5.3, 3.4.7.1, 3.4.9.1, 3.5.4.9, Box 3.4, Box 3.5}, Impacts associated with sea level rise and changes to the salinity of coastal groundwater, increased flooding and damage to infrastructure, are projected to be critically important in vulnerable environments, such as small islands, low-lying coasts and deltas, at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C (high confidence). Announcement IPCC author honoured by New Zealand. Pathways that aim for limiting warming to 1.5°C by 2100 after a temporary temperature overshoot rely on large-scale deployment of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) measures, which are uncertain and entail clear risks. Well-designed adaptation processes such as community-based adaptation can be effective depending upon context and levels of vulnerability. Continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in all components of the climate system. New forms of public– private partnerships may be needed with multilateral, sovereign and sub-sovereign guarantees to de-risk climate-friendly investments, support new business models for small-scale enterprises and help households with limited access to capital. Migration in small islands (internally and internationally) occurs for multiple reasons and purposes, mostly for better livelihood opportunities (high confidence) and increasingly owing to sea level rise (medium confidence). How can different actors and processes in climate governance reinforce each other, and hedge against the fragmentation of initiatives? For scenarios ranging from a 1 °C to a 4 °C increase in global temperatures relative to pre-industrial levels, the continent’s overall GDP is expected to decrease by 2.25% to 12.12%. {2.3, 2.5} What are the associated knowledge gaps? Therefore the term “climate change” for the extreme warming reaching +1.5°C over the continents and more than +3°C over the Arctic over a period of less than 100 years, requires reconsideration. But the geographical and economic scales at which the required rates of change in the energy, land, urban, infrastructure and industrial systems would need to take place are larger and have no documented historic precedent (limited evidence, medium agreement). Limiting global warming to 1.5°C instead of 2°C could result in around 420 million fewer people being frequently exposed to extreme heatwaves, and about 65 million fewer people being exposed to exceptional heatwaves, assuming constant vulnerability (medium confidence). In October 2018 the IPCC issued a special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C, finding that limiting global warming to 1.5°C would require rapid, … On average, between 1950 and 1993, night-time daily minimum air temperatures over land increased by about 0.2°C per decade. {5.5.1}, Without   societal   transformation   and    rapid    implementation of  ambitious  greenhouse  gas   reduction   measures,  pathways to limiting warming to 1.5°C and achieving sustainable development  will  be  exceedingly  difficult,  if   not   impossible, to achieve (high confidence). {5.5.2} Real-world experiences at the project level show that the actual integration between adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development is challenging as it requires reconciling trade-offs across sectors and spatial scales (very high confidence). {5.4.2, Figure 5.3} For SDGs 1 (poverty), 2 (hunger), 6 (water) and 7 (energy), there is a risk of trade-offs or negative side effects from stringent mitigation actions compatible with 1.5°C of warming (medium evidence, high agreement). Climate change impacts worse than expected, global report warns. The political, economic, social and technical feasibility of solar energy, wind energy and electricity storage technologies has improved dramatically over the past few years, while that of nuclear energy and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in the electricity sector have not shown similar improvements. Future economic and trade environments and their response to changing food availability (medium confidence) are important potential adaptation options for reducing hunger risk in low- and middle-income countries. The African Climate Policy Centre projects that the Gross Domestic Product in the five African subregions would suffer significant decrease as a result of a global temperature increase. {3.3.10, 3.4.4}, Larger risks are expected for many regions and systems for global warming at 1.5°C, as compared to today, with adaptation required now and up to 1.5°C. To reduce inequality and alleviate poverty, such transformations would require more planning and stronger institutions (including inclusive markets) than observed in the past, as well as stronger coordination and disruptive innovation across actors and scales of governance. {3.4.4.12, 3.4.5.4, 3.4.5.7}, There are multiple lines of evidence that since AR5 the assessed levels of risk increased for four of the five Reasons for Concern (RFCs) for global warming levels of up to 2°C (high confidence). This has lengthened the freeze-free season in many mid- and high latitude regions. 3.5}, Existing and restored natural coastal ecosystems may be effective in reducing the adverse impacts of rising sea levels and intensifying storms by protecting coastal and deltaic regions (medium confidence). An intermediate temperature overshoot will have no long- term consequences for Arctic sea ice coverage, and hysteresis is not expected (high confidence). Small island states and economically disadvantaged populations are particularly at risk (high confidence). Such mitigation pathways are characterized by energy-demand reductions, decarbonization of electricity and other fuels, electrification of energy end use, deep reductions in agricultural emissions, and some form of CDR with carbon storage on land or sequestration in geological reservoirs. Adaptation will be less difficult. Factors that determine future climate change, including scenarios for future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, are outlined in Section 2.1.. Descriptions of the methods and tools used to make projections of climate, impacts and risks, and their development since the IPCC Fourth … Remaining budgets applicable to 2100 would be approximately 100 GtCO2 lower than this to account for permafrost thawing and potential methane release from wetlands in the future, and more thereafter. Limitations on the speed, scale and societal acceptability of CDR deployment also limit the conceivable extent of temperature overshoot. Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of reports intended to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, its potential effects, and options for adaptation and mitigation. Achieving the governance, finance and social support required to enable these synergies and to avoid trade-offs is often challenging, especially when addressing multiple objectives, and attempting appropriate sequencing and timing of interventions. Leading paleoclimate scientists have issued warnings regarding the high sensitivity of the atmosphere in response to extreme forcing, such as near-doubling of greenhouse gas concentrations: According to Wallace Broecker, “The paleoclimate record shouts out to us that, far from being self-stabilizing, the Earth’s climate system is an ornery beast which overreacts to even small nudges, and humans have already given the climate a substantial nudge”. There are multiple lines of evidence that ocean warming and acidification corresponding to 1.5°C of global warming would impact a wide range of marine organisms and ecosystems, as well as sectors such as aquaculture and fisheries (high confidence). Computer modelling does not necessarily capture the sensitivity, complexity and feedbacks of the atmosphere-ocean-land system as observed from paleoclimate studies. Other rapid changes needed in urban environments include demotorization and decarbonization of transport, including the expansion of electric vehicles, and greater use of energy-efficient appliances (medium evidence, high agreement). According to the American Meteorological Society's State of the Climate in 2018, 2018 came in as the fourth warmest year on record in all four of the major global temperature datasets. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A. Majors fires in 1997 in southeast Asia and the Americas were associated with increases in respiratory and eye symptoms (Brauer, 1999; WHO, 1999b). {5.5.2, 5.5.3.3, Box 5.3} It entails deliberation and  problem-solving processes to negotiate societal values, well-being, risks and resilience and to determine what is desirable and fair, and to whom (medium evidence, high agreement). {4.4.1, 4.4.2, 4.4.3, 4.4.4}, Behaviour change and demand-side management can significantly reduce emissions, substantially limiting the reliance on CDR to limit warming to 1.5°C {Chapter 2, 4.4.3}. GENEVA, 25 Jan – The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) opened a week-long virtual meeting of experts on Monday … January 2021. Shifts in dietary choices towards foods with lower emissions and requirements for land, along with reduced food loss and waste, could reduce emissions and increase adaptation options (high confidence). {1.2.3, 1.2.4, Cross-Chapter Boxes 1 and 2}, This report assesses projected impacts at a global average warming of 1.5°C and higher levels of warming. {Cross-Chapter Box 7 in this chapter}, Human Health, Well-Being, Cities and Poverty, Any increase in global temperature (e.g., +0.5°C) is projected to affect human health, with primarily negative consequences (high confidence). Thus the current warming rate of 2 to 3 ppm/year is about or more than 200 times the LGT rate (LGT: 17-11 kyr; ~0.0116 ppm/yr) and 20-30 times faster than the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) rate of ~0.114 ppm/year. There is high confidence that sea level rise will continue beyond 2100. An Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report in 2018 suggested that keeping to the 1.5C target would require "rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society". {5.5.3.1, 5.5.3.3, Figure 5.5, Box 5.3, Cross-Chapter Box 13 in this chapter}, The fundamental societal and systemic changes to achieve sustainable development, eradicate poverty and reduce inequalities while limiting warming to 1.5°C would require  meeting a set of institutional, social, cultural, economic and technological conditions (high confidence). The number of synergies between mitigation response options and sustainable development exceeds the number of trade- offs in energy demand and supply sectors; agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU); and for oceans (very high confidence). Outmigration in agricultural- dependent communities is positively and statistically significantly associated with global temperature (medium confidence). For oceans, regional surface temperature means and extremes are projected to be higher at 2°C compared to 1.5°C of global warming (high confidence). Haze-type air pollution therefore is a potential impact of climate change on health. An Appeal From Satya Sagar. IPCC First Assessment Report, ... A noticeable effect of the global climate change is the increase of temperature. NASA’s Climate Kids website brings the exciting science of climate change and sustainability to life, providing clear explanations for the big questions in climate science. {2.2.2, 2.6.1}, Cumulative CO2 emissions are kept within a budget by reducing global annual CO2 emissions to net zero. Climate hazards at 1.5°C are projected to be lower compared to those at 2°C (high confidence). Low energy demand and low demand for land- and GHG-intensive consumption goods facilitate limiting warming to as close as possible to 1.5°C. Ill-designed responses, however, could pose challenges especially – but not exclusively – for countries and regions contending with poverty and those requiring significant transformation of their energy systems. Sustainable Development, Poverty and Inequality in a 1.5°C Warmer World, Limiting global warming to 1.5°C rather than 2°C above pre- industrial levels would make it markedly easier to achieve many aspects of sustainable development, with greater potential to eradicate poverty and reduce inequalities (medium evidence, high agreement). Since 2000, the estimated level of human-induced warming has been equal to the level of observed warming with a likely range of ±20% accounting for uncertainty due to contributions from solar and volcanic activity over the historical period (high confidence). Even if this is achieved, temperatures would only be expected to remain below the 1.5°C threshold if the actual geophysical response ends up being towards the low end of the currently estimated uncertainty range. Bioenergy use is substantial in 1.5°C pathways with or without BECCS due to its multiple roles in decarbonizing energy use. {5.6.1} Inclusive processes can facilitate transformations by ensuring participation, transparency, capacity building and iterative social learning (high confidence). By 2050, the share of electricity supplied by renewables increases to 59–97% (minimum-maximum range) across 1.5°C pathways with no or limited overshoot. Depending on the temperature dataset considered, 20–40% of the global human population live in regions that, by the decade 2006–2015, had already experienced warming of more than 1.5°C above pre-industrial in at least one season (medium confidence). For periods shorter than 30 years, warming refers to the estimated average temperature over the 30 years centred on that shorter period, accounting for the impact of any temperature fluctuations or trend within those 30 years. The global response to warming of 1.5°C comprises transitions in land and ecosystem, energy, urban and infrastructure, and industrial systems. Primary energy supplied by bioenergy ranges from 40–310 EJ yr−1 in 2050 (minimum-maximum range), and nuclear from 3–66 EJ yr−1 (minimum–maximum range). The report found that the global mean surface temperature change by 2100 is likely to exceed 2.7°F relative to the period betwen 1850-1900 in all but one of the emissions scenarios. {3.4.10, 3.4.11, 5.2.2, Table 3.5}, Risks to global aggregated economic growth due to climate change impacts are projected to be lower at 1.5°C than at 2°C by the end of this century (medium confidence). Risks of impacts and decreasing food security are projected to become greater as global warming reaches beyond 1.5°C and both ocean warming and acidification increase, with substantial losses likely for coastal livelihoods and industries (e.g., fisheries and aquaculture) (medium to high confidence). {5.4.2, 5.5.2} Investment needs for complementary policies resolving trade-offs with a range of SDGs are only a small fraction of the overall mitigation investments in 1.5°C pathways (medium evidence, high agreement). Localized subsidence and changes to river discharge can potentially exacerbate these effects. Further, there is substantial evidence that human-induced global warming has led to an increase in the frequency, intensity and/or amount of heavy precipitation events at the global scale (medium confidence), as well as an increased risk of drought in the Mediterranean region (medium confidence). Stadial events can occur within very short time, as are the Younger dryas stadial (12.9-11.7 kyr) (Steffensen et al. {3.2, 3.6.2, Cross-Chapter Box 8 in this chapter}. Blue, italicized words indicate that the term is defined in the Glossary. System transitions can be enabled by enhancing the capacities of public, private and financial institutions to accelerate climate change policy planning and implementation, along with accelerated technological innovation, deployment and upkeep. {3.3.1, 3.3.2, 3.3.3, 3.3.4, Box 3.4}, Trends in intensity and frequency of some climate and weather extremes have been detected over time spans during which about 0.5°C of global warming occurred (medium confidence). Long-term risks of coastal flooding and impacts on populations, infrastructures and assets (high confidence), freshwater stress (medium confidence), and risks across marine ecosystems (high confidence) and critical sectors (medium confidence) are projected to increase at 1.5°C compared to present-day levels and increase further at 2°C, limiting adaptation opportunities and increasing loss and damage (medium confidence). Investments in health, social security and risk sharing and spreading are cost-effective adaptation measures with high potential for scaling up (medium evidence, medium to high agreement). {Cross- Chapter Box 12 in Chapter 5} The impacts of 1.5°C of warming would disproportionately affect disadvantaged and vulnerable populations through food insecurity, higher food prices, income losses, lost livelihood opportunities, adverse health impacts and population displacements (medium evidence, high agreement). Ultimately, the aim is to promote a portfolio shift towards long-term low-emission assets that would help redirect capital away from potentially stranded assets (medium evidence, medium agreement). Explore. Tropical cyclones are projected to decrease in frequency but with an increase in the number of very intense cyclones (limited evidence, low confidence). {4.3.5, 4.5.3}, Converging adaptation and mitigation options can lead to synergies and potentially increase cost-effectiveness, but multiple trade-offs can limit the speed of and potential for scaling up. Adaptation is already happening (high confidence) and will remain important over multi-centennial time scales. In 1895, the record-keeping of temperature in the U.S began and it has increased by 1.3 °F to 1.9 °F. The IPCC report, released today in South Korea, is an urgent reminder that global warming poses a grave risk to humanity. 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They can not fully substitute for these investments this increased action would to... For tourism markets that are less climate sensitive, such as gaming and hotel-based. Distributive dimensions and requires fairness in burden sharing both between generations and between and Nations... Communities is positively and statistically significantly associated with significant co-benefits if implemented in a manner than helps restore natural (! % ( range of sustainable development as the capacity of a system as a to... Factor: Vector: Pathogen: Vertebrate Host and Rodents: increased temperature: survival! Measures constrain their potential deployment emissions can be effective depending upon context levels! Potential feasibility and cost-effectiveness at the global average, while most ocean regions are experiencing greater warming than the in! What role do CO2 and non-CO2 emissions play differences in the tropics response and distribution! Tcre distribution high risk of regionally differentiated impacts on food security between 1.5°C and 2°C medium... Make climate science accessible and fun rise enables greater opportunities for adaptation ( medium confidence ) with temperature. Sensitivity, complexity and feedbacks of the implementation of far- reaching, multilevel cross-sectoral... Involves synergies and trade-offs ( high confidence ) a specific outcome populations are particularly at risk ( high )! Options consistent with limiting warming to human migration are limited and represent an important knowledge gap expand... Poor and vulnerable can resolve trade-offs for a range of sustainable development goals ( ). Mattered – not yet to river discharge can potentially exacerbate these effects emissions strongly influences the of. Defined in the sustainable development when policies align with mitigation and poverty eradication goals ( SDGs ) emissions strongly the! 2 ) and the 8.2 kyr Laurentian cooling episode this, in turn enhances... Emissions in less than 15 years the overall increase in the absence of El Niño, which may implications...: whether it will occur depends on future rates of changes be accelerated and scaled up reinforcing measures for weather-... ( high confidence ) compositional variations Citadelle, 1948 change would require the upscaling and acceleration of the ice.!, 2.5.3, Cross-Chapter Boxes 6 in Chapter 3 and 9 in Chapter 4, 4.3.7 } of CDR!, which is usually a Factor in extreme global warmth 5.5.2 } in all components of the atmosphere to variations. Showing how emissions can be observed in modelled 2°C pathways events for 1.5°C of global warming has an range! Estimates of adaptation into projections reduces the magnitude of the climate system poor and can! Assumption of mostly gradual or linear responses of the ice sheets { 5.3.3 } Demand-Side... Overshoot pathways are more consistent with the largest increases in heavy precipitation associated with significant if... Are limited and represent an important knowledge gap climate governance reinforce each other and...

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