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If you do not know some of the information or want to see all the listing for a county, city, or last name, leave the other fields blank. To learn about us and how you can help maintain this site. Willy Brandt, German political leader. Their sacrifices were honored July 8, 2009, in Washington during a ceremony commemorating the 50th anniversary of their deaths. When The Wall was completed in 1982, it contained 57,939 names. The wall contains 58,307 names. Ty (Tyrus Raymond) Cobb, American baseball player, first man to be elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. It is instructive to read the literature of the war, the letters written home from those who died, the novels and narrative accounts of those who served in combat and then returned. The names of those who gave their lives and of those who remain missing are inscribed in the order they were taken from us. The Navy had a similar profile: 55 percent of its 622 officer casualties were 30 years of age or older, and 45 percent were ranked at lieutenant commander or above when they died. Their sons, if not college material, made up a significant part of the volunteers and draftees. ), EDUCATIONAL LEVELS OF ENLISTED CASUALTIES. It was designed by American architect Maya Lin. Fully 50 percent were in the 17- to 24-year age group, and astonishingly, there were 764 Army officer casualties who were 21 or younger. There were 57,939 names original names etched into the Vietnam Veterans Memorial wall. There are veterans still eligible to have their names inscribed with their fellow honored dead. This amounted to 4.1 percent of all enlisted casualties in Vietnam. Dedicated in 1993, the Vietnam Women's Memorial pays tribute to the more than 265,000 women who served during the Vietnam era. Additionally, many of the names on the wall were other teenagers from the suburban white collar communities with siblings who were in, or would go on to college, but who, as individuals themselves, were slow to mature, struggled through high school and were therefore very available for the Vietnam War. NAVY AND AIR FORCE OFFICER CASUALTIES BY RANK AND AGE. 900 Ohio Drive SW Blacks were 85 percent Protestant. It should be emphasized that 55 percent of all Navy and Air Force officer casualties came as a result of reconnaissance and bombing sorties into North Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and Cambodia. The third garden on the Museum site is the Vietnam Memorial Garden. The slabs meet at a vertex of 125 degrees, 10 feet above ground level to form the Wall. Only 5 to 10 percent of enlisted men in the combat units were estimated to have had some college, and less than 1 percent of these enlisted men were college graduates. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial pays tribute to those who served in the Vietnam War and is one of the most visited attractions in Washington DC.The memorial is a black granite wall inscribed with the names of 58,286 American’s killed or missing in the Vietnam conflict. Items are gathered by park staff. As we have pointed out earlier, more than 80 percent of our casualties were Army and Marine enlisted men with an average age of 19- to 20-years. These young men were trained quickly and shipped to Vietnam quickly. There were 667; How many Andersons?, 178; Garcias?, 102; Murphys?, 82; Jenkins?, 66; One wants to know more about these Americans. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall USA website is dedicated to honoring those who died in the Vietnam War. Of the 7,262 blacks who died, 6,955, or 96 percent, were Army and Marine enlisted men. Congress and the Johnson administration, therefore, sought to protect our college-bound and educated young men. A Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) study released in 1992, found that our Vietnam casualties were only marginally greater from the economically lowest 50 percent of our communities (31 deaths per 100,000 of population), when compared with the economically highest 50 percent (26 deaths per 100,000 population). The Department of Defense decides whose name gets to go on The Wall, but those inscribed typically… Quite a different profile emerges among the Navy and Air force officer corps. The makeup of U.S. combat forces in Vietnam has long been the subject of controversy among social scientists. He was a Navy enlisted man during World War II and has a degree in Political Science from Duke University. The training for American officers is thought by most foreign military authorities to be the best in the world. Of 2,590 total Air Force casualties, 1,674 or 65 percent were officers. As one stands before the Wall one feels that no other judgment is acceptable to their living memory. The officer corps has always drawn heavily on English/Scottish/Welsh, German, Irish and Scandinavian-American ancestries from middle-class white collar homes, with other large percentages from ambitious working class blue collar and, of course, career military families. ARMY AND MARINE OFFICER CASUALTIES BY RANK AND AGE. The shining surface is intended to reflect the sun, the ground and those who stand before it. Although valuable, this study was almost certainly misinterpreted by its authors when they said that their data showed that most privileged and influential segments of American society were not insulated from the perils of Vietnam conflict. Having the names begin and end at the center is meant to form a circle – a completion to the war. They came largely from California and Texas, with lesser numbers from Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Florida, New York and a few from many other states across the country. Thus, there were 211,455 killed and wounded, or one in every 10 Americans who served in Vietnam. Memorial pages honoring Vietnam War casualties, listed by their last names. The same profile holds true for the Marine Corps, where 87 percent of all officer casualties (821 of 938) were warrant officers, lieutenants or captains. This makeup, they say, was the very antithesis of what we stand for as a democracy — a shameful corruption of our values and our historical sense of fairness and social justice. What happens to items left at the memorial? If the demographic is expanded to 17- to 21- years, then we find there were 83 percent of Marine enlisted casualties, and 65 percent of Army enlisted casualties. And they often show a heartbreakingly wry sense of humor with the same sensibilities as their college-bound peers. All classes were drafted or volunteered and all served and died equally, although it must be noted that most blacks died separately. Maya Lin: Vietnam Veterans Memorial They did not, in most cases, carry the burdens of wife or children. There was no need to embellish. The panels are filled like pages of a journal listing the men and women's names as they fell. The Air Force lost the highest percentage of officers. is listed by the U.S. Department of Defense as having a casualty date of June 8, 1956. Lower end category IVs consisting of those who scored below 20 on the AFQT were usually rejected for service. The shining surface is intended to reflect the sun, the ground and those who stand before it. The vast majority of Americans who were eligible by age but did not serve in the armed forces were exempted by reason of physical, mental, psychiatric, or moral failure; or they were given status deferments because they were college students, fathers, clergy, teachers, engineers or conscientious objectors. Vietnam Veterans Memorial How many names are on the wall? The DOD database listed precise religious preferences for the 58,152 Vietnam casualties. Ninety-one percent of these Army officers were warrant officers, second lieutenants, first lieutenants or captains. But given the draft policies, the hard-sell recruitment, the severe escalation from month to month and the refusal by President Lyndon Johnson to call up the older reserves and National Guard, it could not have been otherwise. The Army as a branch had 134,982 killed or wounded (9.5 percent), but the Marines suffered 66,227 killed or wounded (22.5 percent) or almost one of every four Marines who served. This is close to, but not exactly in the same order as the names on the Wall. During the Vietnam War, the Navy and Air Force became substantially white enclaves – enlisted and officer casualties were 96 percent white. However, if officer casualties are added to the total, then this overrepresentation is reduced to 12.5 percent of all casualties. All of the names were read out loud this year for the fifth time. The Air Force lost 2,580 or l percent. The Army suffered the most total casualties, 38,179 or 2.7 percent of its force. What the MIT study almost certainly showed was that members of the so-called working class consisting of carpenters, electricians, plumbers, firemen, policemen, technicians, skilled factory operatives, farmers, etc., were living in middle class communities and were, therefore, part of our burgeoning middle class. Of the 7,877 officer casualties, 7,595, or 96.4 percent, were white; 147, or 1.8 percent, were black; 24, or 0.3 percent, were Asian; 7, or .08 percent, were Native American; 104, or 1.3 percent, were unidentified by race. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. Mayor of Berlin and Chancellor of West Germany. While many may not think of a name as a representational memorial, a name directly represents an individual. Registry entries include a panel number and row number that correspond to its location in the memorial (see graphic above). The names are listed in chronological order by date of their casualty and begin and end at the origin point, or center, of the memorial where the two walls meet. Although it is a truism that the young die in war, one is still unprepared for the fact that 40 percent of Marine enlisted casualties in Vietnam were teenagers; that more than 16 percent of Army enlisted casualties were also teenagers; and that nearly a quarter of all enlisted casualties in Vietnam were between the ages of 17- and 19-years old. The ten names added this year met the DoD's criteria. Black leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr., protested, and President Johnson ordered black participation in combat units cut back. Many of the 17- and 18-year olds were simply late in maturing. The Marine Corps lost 14,836, or 5 percent of its own men. The widely held notion that the poor served and died in Vietnam while the rich stayed home is way off the mark. How many Smiths can there possibly be who died in Vietnam? In civilian life, poor aptitude testing can have a tremendous negative impact, whether for college placement or for simple job advancement. The draft policy at the time of the Vietnam War was called the Universal Military Training and Service Act. When the Wall was dedicated in 1982, there were 57,939 names inscribed. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated on November 10, 1982, with 57,939 names. You can scroll down to see the names of casualties listed under their official city. This uneven impact was caused by a number of factors: (1) While the South was home to some 53 percent of all blacks in the 1970 census, almost 60 percent of black casualties came from the South; (2) Although we cannot be as precise, we do know that a considerable majority of Hispanic-American casualties came from the West, (California, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado) and the South (Texas); (3) Better employment opportunities in the Northeast reduced the number of volunteers; (4) Greater college matriculation in the Northeast increased the number of status deferments for the region’s 17- to 24- year olds; (5) More anti-war sentiment in the media and on college campuses in the Northeast. The article was written by Bill Abbott, an independent researcher and writer. OR To shorten the name list, enter 2 or more letters of any part of a name in the box below. These casualties came largely from the Northeast and North Central regions of the United States, many from the traditionally patriotic, Catholic working class neighborhoods. With the end of the Cold War, many now believe that at its outset the Vietnam War was a quite honorable extension of our ultimately successful policy of Communist containment; that our effort in Vietnam became flawed because of political and strategic failures having nothing to do with those who died there; and that these young Americans were asked by three presidents and six Congresses to give up their lives so that freedom would have a better chance in the world. Naval Academy, 130; Texas A & M, 112; The Citadel, 66; Virginia Military Institute, 43; Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 26; Norwich University, 19. Since the days of Alexander the Great and the Roman Legions, it has always been the young, inexperienced, low-ranking enlisted man who has taken the brunt of combat casualties. Early on President Johnson, his advisers and especially the Congress, realized that if the draft was to be truly equitable and had included combat assignments in Vietnam for the sons of the educationally advantaged and influential Americans from the professional and managerial classes, then the resulting uproar would have shut down the war. Many of them, as experienced pilots, were older (two thirds were thirty or older) and many were high ranking. There still are 338 photos missing. Adding to the problem was Project 100,000. Perhaps more important, many of them probably did not yet fully understand their own mortality and were therefore less likely to be hesitant in combat. The idea that American enlisted dead were made up largely of society’s poverty stricken misfits is a terrible slander to their memory and to the solid working-class and middle-class families of this country who provided the vast majority of our casualties. Army and Marine officer casualties were also quite young. The names are arranged first by date, and then alphabetically. Eight women were killed in Vietnam, five Army lieutenants, one Army captain, one Army lieutenant colonel and one Air Force captain. The first names appear at the center of the wall at the top of panel 1E. Many of the surviving parents are now deceased. Officer casualties in Vietnam, including warrant officers, numbered 7,874, or 13.5 percent of all casualties. It forces us to the conclusion that many of those names on the wall were kids who just couldn’t quite get it together in high school, a little late in maturing intellectually, and didn’t have the resources or the guile to get out of the way when the war came. One additional factor, often overlooked, that influenced volunteer enlistment was military tradition — the influence of fathers, grandfathers, brothers, uncles and others who had served in previous 20th century wars. Why Names Are Added To The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall Heartbreak Hope In To Add 74 Names Vietnam Frequently Asked Ions Vietnam Veterans Memorial U S Vietnam War Veterans Kids Say Agent Orange Impact A Protestants were 64.4 percent (37,483), Catholics were 28.9 percent (16,806). Vietnam War casualties from Massachusetts Click or Tap on name to find a personal memorial page of a casualty from this state. This came at a time when blacks made up 11 percent of the male population nationwide. The Selective Service System it said, has the responsibility to deliver manpower to the armed forces in such a manner as to reduce to a minimum any adverse effect upon the national health, safety, interest and progress. With few exceptions, almost all of the 6,600 commissioned officers who died in Vietnam were graduates of the service academies, college Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC), or the Officer Candidate School (OCS) programs. No other American war has presented such a young profile in combat. As one walks the Wall slowly, examining the ineffably American names, one is struck by the same recurring surnames. World War II had been, for the most part, a perfect war, clear of purpose, the forces of democracy and freedom lined up against the forces of fascism and tyranny. The names would become the memorial. And more’s the pity, because many of them were trying to escape this background and didn’t make it. He accepted the tradition of military service passed on to him by the popular culture and by President John F. Kennedy’s ringing words, Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to assure the survival and success of liberty. Just as the Vietnam War had divided the country, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial garnered many outspoken opinions of both praise and antipathy. 20024. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. As a region, the South experienced the greatest numbers of dead, nearly 34 percent of the total, or 31.0 deaths per 100,000 of population. By and large, with the exception of the officer corps, most of the college bound and educated skipped the Vietnam War at the urging of, and with the approval of, their own government. Often that advice, especially for professional athletes, rock stars, sons of politicians and other celebrities, was to join the never-to-be-called-up reserves or National Guard. Early in the war (1965 and 1966) when blacks made up about 11 percent of our Vietnam force, black casualties soared to more than 20 percent of the total. The Vietnam War was no different. On average, 43 percent of white enlisted entrants placed in categories I and II (scoring 65 to 100) and 57 percent in categories III and IV (scoring 10 to 64). The names of Army Master Sergeant Chester Ovnand and Major Dale Buis are inscribed on Panel 1E of the Vietnam War Memorial Wall. Inscribed on the black granite walls are the names of more than 58,000 men and women who gave their lives or remain missing. The memorial was then officially dedicated. Through the AFQT process, the men scoring in the higher categories were more likely to be channeled into further specialized training and eventually assigned to technical and administrative units. The names as representations of individuals tend to evoke very specific memories about that individual. The names are arranged chronologically by date of casualty. Each row contains five names (six where a name has been added since the wall was originally installed). Katie Holmes, actress (Dawson's Creek TV series, Batman Begins). In the military it can be somewhat more deadly. They were struggling through or dropping out of high school, or if a high school graduate, had tested poorly for college entrance. These officer casualties came more from the South and West regions, 4.1 deaths per 100,000, in contrast to 3.5 from the Northeast and Midwest regions. We were one giant Hollywood B-17 bomber crew, one perfect socioeconomic platoon storming Omaha Beach or Okinawa. And, as in every American war, it is the very young who are the most willing to volunteer. In this manner, the memorial evokes a theme of closure or completion; the first are with the last. As Maya Ling Lin, the architect of the Wall, has said: It was as if the black-brown earth were polished and made into an interface between the sunny world and the quiet dark world beyond that we cannot enter. Almost 50 percent were majors, lieutenant-colonels, colonels and three were generals. The civilian and military men who formed the policy did not see it necessarily as a disadvantage. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated on November 10, 1982, with 57,939 names. Coast Guard casualties are included in the Navy totals. From 1964 to 1973, 2,100,000 men and women served in Vietnam, but this was only 8 percent of the 26,000,000 Americans who were eligible for military service. Many others joined the reserves or National Guard, which were not mobilized in any appreciable numbers during the war. The essence of the Wall is the names and the reaction of the visitor to … Thus we can see that the channeling philosophy continued within the armed forces. At the time, approximately 1,300 names were designated as servicemen who were either missing or prisoners of war. THE NAMES ON THE WALL: AN HISTORICAL JUDGMENT. This was a reflection of the role of warrant officers as helicopter pilots (of the 1,277 warrant officer casualties, 95 percent were Army helicopter pilots), and of the young lieutenants and captains as combat platoon leaders or company commanders. The draftee, if found physically and mentally fit, would be inducted for a period of two years, to be followed by another two year period in the active reserves and a subsequent two years in the inactive reserves. They were at their peak physically. In 2004, the total is 58,241 names. It honors service members of the U.S. armed forces who fought in the Vietnam War, service members who died in service in Vietnam/South East Asia, and those service members who were unaccounted for during the war. It is a word that stands for a being. For blacks, however, only 7 percent placed in categories I and II and 93 percent placed in categories III and IV. In many of these families it was considered unpatriotic and indeed reprehensible to avoid active duty by requesting a status deferment or seeking out a draft counselor for advice on how to avoid the draft. The DOD percentages reveal that nearly 75 percent of Army enlisted casualties were privates or corporals. Multiple casualties occurring on the same day appear in alphabetical order. It may come as a surprise to some that 63.3 percent of all Vietnam enlisted casualties were not draftees but volunteers. These alphabetical indexes are for your convenience but do not represent the order of names on the Wall. It should be noted, however, that the draft was specifically designed to trigger volunteer enlistments. As a result, it was mainly the families of Navy and Air Force pilots and crewmen who suffered the great agony of the POW (prisoner of war) and MIA (missing in action) experience that came out of the Vietnam War. Panel numbers are engraved in the memorial at the bottom of each panel. Source: YouTube/Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund 58,000 names are listed on The Wall, dedicated to those who dies while serving in Vietnam. The Channeling Memo of July 1965, instructed all local draft boards to give status deferments to college undergraduate and post-graduate students. While the collection is not open to the public, Items Left at The Wall is a virtual collection of nearly 500 items left at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial that can be seen at www.vvmf.org/items. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall lists the names of those killed and missing in action in chronological order according to the date of casualty. Find a Name Search the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's database of names on the wall. Since its adoption in 1951, at the time of the Korean War, this policy had been renewed by Congress every four years. This number of deaths per 100,000 compared strikingly with the 23.5 in the Northeast region, 29.9 in the West and 28.4 in the North Central (Midwest) region. Many high-ranking military men (including General William C. Westmoreland, the U.S. commander in Vietnam) opposed the program, feeling that the effectiveness of some units would be reduced and that fellow soldiers would sometimes be put in greater jeopardy by these less mentally capable personnel. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. has the names listed in chronological order by date of loss. Fort Irwin isn’t looking for a full-scale replica: This one should not be larger than 250 feet in length, or half the size of the (national) Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall on the National Mall. Of course, the Marine, Navy, and Air Force enlisted casualties were all volunteers, but as it turned out, almost 50 percent of Army enlisted casualties were also volunteers. …’In honor of the men and women of the Armed Forces of the United States who served in the Vietnam War. The article was originally published in the June 1993 issue of Vietnam Magazine and updated in November 2004. The popularity of the GI Bill after Vietnam emphasized this yearning. Who were they? They refer to older or younger siblings who are either in or on their way to college. There is some truth to this, but it is instructive to look at what the DOD database reveals in terms of race, ethnicity, national origin, religious preference and casualties by U.S. geographic areas. They also died quickly, many within a few weeks or months of arriving in Vietnam. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was built to serve as a memorial to all those servicemen who served in the Vietnam War, both living and dead. Those who could have qualified for college probably did not have the funds or motivation. The trigger came when the recruiters pointed out that the volunteer could enlist as early as 17 (with parental consent); that he was allowed to select his branch of service; that he would receive specialized training if he qualified; that he could request a specific overseas assignment; and that his three year enlistment followed by three years in the inactive reserves satisfied his military obligation immediately. In this study we will refer to casualties as the 58,152 who died in Vietnam, but it should be emphasized that there were 153,303 who were wounded seriously enough to be hospitalized. Others, later in the war, were simply ineligible because of high lottery number. But after World War II a kind of educational apartheid had settled over the United States. Electronic registries available online or accessible by park staff in the information kiosk at the memorial allow users to search by several data including first name, last name, branch of service, rank, date of birth, date of casualty, state and/or city where they enlisted. Since then, 379 names have been added, for a total of 58,318 (as of Memorial Day 2017). Some went to Canada or Sweden, but few of those who evaded the draft were actually prosecuted and most were eventually pardoned by President Jimmy Carter in 1977. For more great articles be sure to subscribe to Vietnam Magazine today! Thus it is safe to say that Hispanic-Americans were over-represented among Vietnam casualties — an estimated 5.5 percent of the dead against 4.5 percent of the 1970 population. They often reveal a typically warm American family atmosphere. The DOD database provides no civilian or military educational levels for the Vietnam casualties specifically, but it does give us general levels for all enlisted men across all the services during the Vietnam era. The burden of combat fell on the very available non-college-bound young. Non-perishable items are archived in a storage facility. This, they felt, would offer these men the opportunity to get remedial training in the service and then be able to compete successfully when they returned to civilian life. See the following photos and learn about the Vietnam Memorial. These names represented those military personnel who... See … For row number, count down from the highest row on the panel. If the two branches are combined, then 80 percent of the Army and Marine enlisted casualties were privates or corporals, grades E-1 to E-4. The names are arranged in the order in which they were taken from us by date and within each date the names … The slabs meet at a vertex of 125 degrees, 10 feet above ground level to form the Wall. The figures show that on average 65 percent of white enlisted men and 60 percent of black enlisted men were high school graduates. With the addition of six names added in 2010 the total is now 58,272 names listed on the Memorial. As part of the wall’s 30th anniversary … The combination of the selective service policies with the skills and aptitude testing of both volunteers and draftees (in which blacks scored noticeably lower) conspired to assign blacks in greater numbers to the combat units of the Army and Marine Corps. All were nurses, all were single and all but one were in their 20s. The very young were considered by many to be preferred combat material. 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