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In bird: Skeleton …to 23 fused vertebrae, the synsacrum, to which the pelvic girdle is fused. What Happens When You Mix Alcohol With Other Drugs? Posterior to the synsacrum there are a few free caudal vertebrae, the last of which is the pygostyle to which the long, stiff tail feathers are attached. Sternum: in Birds - Most of structure is Large and … BIOSCIENCE.® does not endorse or sell any of the third party products and services advertised. The roof of the pelvis is formed by the synsacrum (Figure 9.2). a dorsal ridge of bone in the pelvic region of birds, formed by the fusion of certain thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal vertebrae. Their transverse processes are divided into dorsal and ventral portions. In birds, foramen triosseum is present at the junction of the clavicle, scapula and coracoid. This structure supports illia of the pelvic girdle. The part of the leg that is visible, that is, the part that does not have feathers, is composed of fused metatarsal bones (homologous with the foot of humans). A partial synsacrum of a primitive bird from the Zenge Kurgan 3 locality in the Kyzyl Kum Desert (Uzbekistan) is described. The innominate and synsacrum also fuse together. This stylised bird skeleton highlights the synsacrum Synsacrum of an unidentified bird. Unfortunately, kidney diseases in birds often carry a poor prognosis as many cases are diagnosed after they become chronic disease. It is formed by the fusion of 14 to 16 vertebrae. A selection of top articles hand-picked by our editors available only to registered users. In extant birds the pygostyle bears the tail feathers (rectrices). Definition of synsacrum : a solidly fused series of vertebrae in the pelvic region in birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs comprising usually the last rib-bearing or thoracic vertebra, the two sacral vertebrae, and a varying number of caudal vertebrae — compare sacrum The two ‘sides’ of the pelvis are reduced in size compared with mammals but consist of the iliac and ischial bones, with the acetabulum being created where they meet. In the birds vertebral column compound structure is present. Hence, option D is correct. In the birds, vertebral column compound structure is present. Let's work together to keep the conversation civil. Evaluation of the renal parenchyma via ultrasound may be complicated by the presence of the surrounding air sacs and synsacrum.14 . 3. Bird leg and pelvic … endocast . It is called synsacrum. Fractures ¾brittle mammals ¾rapidly • weeks ¾healing first • visible radiographically . The development of a beak has led to evolution … Synsacrum definition is - a solidly fused series of vertebrae in the pelvic region in birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs comprising usually the last rib-bearing or thoracic vertebra, the two sacral vertebrae, and a varying number of caudal vertebrae. Some posterior thoracic vertebrae, the lumbar, sacral and a few anterior caudal vertebrae are fused to form a complex bone called synsacrum. D. Clavicle, scapula, coracoid . The central section of the synsacrum is swollen to accommodate the glycogen body, an organ whose function is as yet unclear but which may be associated with balance. In the birds vertebral column compound structure is present. SYNSACRUM IN BIRDS. In the birds vertebral column compound structure is present. For reprint rights: BSPK Syndication Service. They are filled with air and are pneumatic. The acetabulum in birds is not a complete bony socket as it is in mammals, but a fibrous sheet. synsacrum In birds, a structure in the pelvic girdle formed by the fusion of certain vertebrae. PECTEN IN BIRDS. Each foot was made up of tarsometatarsus and … [citation needed]. The variation found within the avian axial column is directly related to the … “+ noun Etymology: New Latin, from syn + sacrum : a solidly fused series of vertebrae in the pelvic region in birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs comprising usually the last rib bearing or thoracic vertebra, the two sacral vertebrae, and a varying… C. Clavicle, synsacrum, furcula. The vertebrate fauna from this locality is similar to that of the Bissekty Formation of the Dzharakuduk locality (Central Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan); however, this synsacrum differs considerably from all other synsacra from … synsacrum ¾See with birds window. account and enjoy increased access to BIOSCIENCE. The anatomy of bird legs and feet is diverse, encompassing many accommodations to perform a wide variety of functions. Foramen of triosseum is an opening enclosed by the clavicle, scapula and coracoid of a bird at the point where these three bones meet. Bird feet are adapted to the life they lead and are often used in avian classification. The endoskeleton of birds (fowl or Gallus) is quite light and completely ossified and contains no marrow. In the eye of the bird a comb like structure is present. 26.26) is the bone of thigh of hindlimb. Apteryx owenii (AM LB229) 601594.jpg 8,688 × 5,792; 9.91 MB. Answer. This structure supports llia of the pelvic girdle. xxi) The synsacrum was absent and the sacral region consisted of six vertebrae. D. Clavicle, scapula, coracoid. The ulna was stronger than radius. In birds, foramen triosseum is present at the junction of the clavicle, scapula and coracoid. Those vertebrae are one last thorasic vertebra, Six lumbar vertebrae, two sacral vertebrae and seven candal vertebrae. BIOSCIENCE.® is a nonprofit organization and proceeds from Web advertising and membership fee help support our mission. In terms of external morphology, the synsacrum corresponds to the rump. Sacral neural canal . During evolution the reduction of the tail is accompanied by a … Parasagittal section . This forms a more extensive rigid structure than the pelvis of a mammal, fulfilling requirements for flight, locomotion and respiration. The skull represents an advance over that of reptiles in the relatively larger cranium with fusion of elements, made possible by the fact that birds have a fixed adult size. These … Medium. It is called synsacrum. The early evolution of birds involves a step where the long tail of reptilian predecessors is reduced and forms a pygostyle at the end where in extant birds tail feathers (rectrices) insert. Abstract. Media in category "Bird synsacrum" The following 23 files are in this category, out of 23 total. A) Toucans. Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Synsacrum&oldid=942258475, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 February 2020, at 16:24. The avian skeleton is notable for its strength and lightness, achieved by fusion of elements and by pneumatization (i.e., presence of air cavities). In birds, the adjacent bones of the pelvic girdle fuse into the os coxae, which fuses with the synsacrum, a fusion of multiple lumbosacral vertebrae. It is formed by the fusion of 14 to 16 vertebrae. Archive, an essential tool for health-science and biology education and research. Some posterior thoracic vertebrae, the lumbar, sacral and a few anterior … Muscle ¾Highly vascularized muscle ¾here rapidly ¾Nonflighted birds “flabby” muscles. The innominate bones are fused with the synsacrum to a greater or lesser extent, according to species, forming an avian pelvis. The synsacrum is a skeletal structure of birds and other dinosaurs, in which the sacrum is extended by incorporation of additional fused or partially fused caudal or lumbar vertebrae and it can only be seen on birds. This is a common feature of birds from neornithines to modern birds, helping to strengthen the fused synsacrum . Pygostyle. A partial synsacrum of a primitive bird from the Zenge Kurgan 3 locality in the Kyzyl Kum Desert (Uzbekistan) is described. A partial synsacrum of a primitive bird from the Zenge Kurgan 3 locality in the Kyzyl Kum Desert (Uzbekistan) is described. Possible causes of a bubbling feeling in the chest, Plastic Eating Fungus Discovered in Pakistan by Chinese Scientists, Laryngospasm: Causes, symptoms, and treatments, Common heartburn drugs tied to higher risk of death. The synsacrum is a unit formed by the fusion of the posterior thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae. Flickr photos, groups, and tags related to the "synsacrum" Flickr tag. (1908) (18745301203).jpg 2,486 × 4,095; 567 KB. This forms the tibiotarsus, which is the longest … ... Synsacrum: Synsacrum is a long compound bone formed by the fusion of 14 to 16 vertebrae, supporting the long ilium of the pelvic girdle on both sides. The posterior thoracic vertebrae and synsacrum are pneumatized by the abdominal air sacs in most taxa. Whereas the tail of bipedal theropods could help to keep balance, tail feathers of birds serve flight manœuvres. Annual report of the Regents - New York State Museum. In the birds, vertebral column compound structure is present. Scapula, corocoid, synsacrum. Bones of the pelvic girdle fuse to form the innominate bone. The rigid synsacrum and ilium fuse to form an immovable structure with osteoblasts visible in the ilium from E14. Refrain from posting comments that are obscene, defamatory or inflammatory, and do not indulge in personal attacks, name-calling or inciting hatred against any community. Malash aquatic organisms in the Late Cretaceous beds of the ichev (2006) has recently shown in his embryological Kyzyl Kum Desert, which included extremely rare and study that true sacral … These fusions result in regionally fused sections of the axial column that act to modularize the column into sturdy units able to support the body. It is formed by the fusion of 14 to 16 vertebrae. In the birds vertebral column compound structure is present. The synsacrum of birds is a complex structure con taining up to 15 vertebrae of various origin. Clavicle, synsacrum, furcula. Those vertebrae are one last thoracic vertebra, six lumbar vertebrae, two sacral vertebrae and seven caudal vertebrae. This feature makes the avian hip joint unique among all vertebrates, living and fossil, in that a significant portion of the femoral-pelvic articulation is located outside of the acetabulum. What family of birds has been used to advertise alcoholic beverages and breakfast foods, in addition to serving as political mascots, cartoon characters, and models for Pokémon characters? Help us delete comments that do not follow these guidelines by marking them offensive. It is called Synsacrum. Answer. It is short and powerful bone flattened at both the ends. Birds have evolved a light skeletal system and light but powerful musculature which, along with circulatory and respiratory systems capable of very high metabolic rates and oxygen supply, permit the bird to fly. Most spinal fractures in birds are located in the mid or caudal thoracic region, cranial to the synsacrum and caudal to the notarium. The synsacrum fuses with the pelvis itself to form a dorsal shield of bone over the caudal aspect of the bird. Necker 2005: fig 3 . Apteryx owenii (AM LB229) 601593.jpg 8,688 × 5,792; 16.3 MB. For this purpose there are two plate-like girders, the sternum and synsacrum, curved in opposite directions. He discovered several The synsacrum of birds is a complex structure con localities with various assemblages of terrestrial and taining up to 15 vertebrae of various origin. - These canals occupy expansions of the neural canal at former intervertebral joints in the synsacrum. It is called Synsacrum. Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of birds' bodies, shows many unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight. Most spinal fractures in birds are located in the mid or caudal thoracic region, cranial to the synsacrum and caudal to the notarium. The carpals and metacarpals were free excepting the 3rd metacarpal which was fused with carpal. He discovered several The synsacrum of birds is a complex structure con localities with various assemblages of terrestrial and taining up to 15 vertebrae of various origin. Unfortunately spinal trauma that results in permanent loss of function is catastrophic for the patient’s chance of release and euthanasia is almost always recommended. The antitrochanter is a uniquely avian osteological feature of the pelvis that is located lateral to the postero-dorsal rim of the acetabulum. Unfortunately spinal trauma that results in permanent loss of function is catastrophic for the patient’s chance of release and euthanasia is almost always recommended. It is formed by the fusion of 14 to 16 vertebrae. The transverse and ventral processes of the two sacral vertebrae abut and fuse to the medial posterior curve of the ilium. Endoscopic Biopsy. Foramen of triosseum is an opening enclosed by the clavicle, scapula and coracoid of a bird at the point where these three bones meet. BIOSCIENCE.® does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Synsacrum. - Present in most (all?) content, ideas and unlock downloads. The innominate bone and synsacrum are constructed in such a manner as to increase strength and reduce weight. There are three lobes, anterior, middle and posterior, in which there is no renal pelvis but renal lobules comprising a medullary cone and the region of the cortex that it drains. ADVERTISEMENTS: xxiii) The tibia and fibula were separate and were of equal length. Coccygeal vertebrae The majority of the caudal coccygeal vertebrae (Figure 9.2) are usually fused into a single structure known as the pygostyle – which forms the ‘parsons nose’ part of the chicken! xxii) Humerus was short and stout. birds, Larger and earlier-developing in weak fliers and flightless taxa. It is called Synsacrum. The last part of the synsacrum is formed by the union of first seven caudal vertebrae. Those vertebrae are one last thoracic vertebra, six lumbar vertebrae, two sacral vertebrae and seven caudal vertebrae. In birds hindlimbs are modified for bipedal locomotion. Thecentrum of these vertebrae are laterally compressed. Whereas the tail of biped theropods could help to keep balance, tail feathers of birds serve flight manœuvres. The dorsal portions of these vertebrae will fuse to form bony plates. light,bony plate formed by the (caudal) Lumbar, Sacral, and the (cranial) coccygial vertebrae. The synsacrum is a skeletal structure of birds and other dinosaurs, in which the sacrum is extended by incorporation of additional fused or partially fused caudal or lumbar vertebrae and it can only be seen in birds. The synsacrum is tightly fused with the hip bones (sometimes called the innominate bones, which includes regions corresponding to the ilium and ischium of mammals). Login to your BIOSCIENCE. The ventral portion is rod like. Fusions of these bones make birds sturdy and indirectly … Copyright © 2012-2021 BIOSCIENCE PK, LLC. It is formed by the fusion of 14 to 16 vertebrae. * fuses with pelvis. Click to see full answer. It is formed by the fusion of 14 to 16 vertebrae. The synsacrumis a skeletal structure of birdsand other dinosaurs, in which the sacrumis extended by incorporation of additional fused or partially fused caudal or lumbar vertebrae and it can only be seen in birds. A partial synsacrum of a primitive bird from the Zenge Kurgan 3 locality in the Kyzyl Kum Desert (Uzbekistan) is described. It is called pecten. The synsacrum is a skeletal structure of birds and other dinosaurs, in which the sacrum is extended by incorporation of additional fused or partially fused caudal or lumbar vertebrae and it can only be seen in birds. During the 1930s and 1940s Guinness (beer) advertising featured a toucan, as the black and white appearance of the bird mirrored the stout. caudal bones of the Coccygeal vertebrae that are fused to support the tail feathers. Femur: Femur (Fig. It is considered as a rib. Just so, what is the function of a Pygostyle? Lumbosacral canals: transverse, fluid-filled meningeal tubes that arch dorsally over the spinal … Birds have paired kidneys recessed into renal fossae, bony depressions in the fused vertebrae of the synsacrum.There are three lobes, anterior, middle and posterior, in which there is no renal pelvis but renal lobules comprising a medullary cone and the region of the cortex that it drains. The hind limbs are made up of the femur, which is relatively short in most birds. All rights reserved. Those vertebrae are one last thorasic vertebra, Six lumbar vertebrae, two sacral vertebrae and seven candal vertebrae. It is called Synsacrum. 1. Copyright © 2019 BIOSCIENCE PK, LLC. Posterior to the synsacrum is a series of free tail (caudal) vertebrae and finally the pygostyle, which consists of several fused caudal vertebrae and supports the tail feathers. function of the Synsacrum - Provides framework to support the legs - shock absorber for pelvis when a bird lands. Tarsus is absent. In birds, the number of vertebrae involved in the synsacrum includes all the lumbar vertebrae, some thoracic vertebrae, and one or more caudal vertebrae. Apatornis.jpg 945 × 352; 188 KB. Those vertebrae are one last thorasic vertebra, Six lumbar vertebrae, two sacral vertebrae and seven candal... By BS Media. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Alaska Salmon: A Healthy Seafood & High Quality Lean Protein Source. See additional information. limbs All rights reserved. Medium. Birds have paired kidneys recessed into renal fossae, bony depressions in the fused vertebrae of the synsacrum. Source for information on synsacrum: A Dictionary of Zoology dictionary. The tendon at the minor pectoral muscle, … Those vertebrae are one last thorasic vertebra, Six lumbar vertebrae, two sacral vertebrae and seven candal vertebrae. Educational and corporate subscriptions give institutions and students unlimited access to the BIOSCIENCE. Up to 15 vertebrae of the ilium avian pelvis in weak fliers and flightless.!, kidney diseases in birds, vertebral column compound structure is present ¾rapidly... 16.3 MB morphology, the synsacrum corresponds to the rump stylised bird skeleton highlights the to! Unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight Kum Desert ( Uzbekistan ) is quite light completely. Mostly aiding flight and powerful bone flattened at both the ends, vertebral column compound structure is present at junction. Whereas the tail of biped theropods could help to keep balance, tail feathers curved... And seven candal vertebrae information on synsacrum: a Dictionary of Zoology Dictionary source for information on:. Form bony plates bony plates extent, according to species, forming an avian.! The bird Mix Alcohol with Other Drugs wide variety of functions, Larger and earlier-developing weak... 'S work together to keep balance, tail feathers: a Healthy Seafood High! Paired kidneys recessed into renal fossae, bony depressions in the birds foramen. Ventral processes of the Coccygeal vertebrae that are fused to form a complex bone called synsacrum function a... The legs - shock absorber for pelvis when a bird lands the anatomy of bird legs and is. First seven caudal vertebrae the bone of thigh of hindlimb the function of a primitive bird from the Zenge 3. Metacarpal which was fused with carpal ¾Nonflighted birds “ flabby ” muscles to keep balance, tail feathers accommodations. Caudal bones of the synsacrum synsacrum of birds serve flight manœuvres into renal fossae, depressions! Us delete comments that do not follow these guidelines by marking them offensive … this stylised bird highlights... And coracoid or the physiological structure of birds serve flight manœuvres limbs are made up of and. Scapula and coracoid Larger and earlier-developing in weak fliers and flightless taxa Regents - New York Museum... Seafood & High Quality Lean Protein source anterior caudal vertebrae - New York State Museum of Dictionary! Caudal ) lumbar, sacral, and the sacral region consisted of Six vertebrae development of a primitive from! Diverse, encompassing many accommodations to perform a wide variety of functions thoracic vertebrae and seven.... Legs - shock absorber for pelvis when a bird lands presence of the bird of birds ',! Region consisted of Six vertebrae Regents - New York State Museum BS Media were free excepting the metacarpal... Only to registered users that do not follow these guidelines by marking them offensive the.., forming an avian pelvis triosseum is present, what is the bone of of... Synsacrum corresponds to the medial posterior curve of the renal parenchyma via ultrasound may be complicated by the of! Balance, tail feathers socket as it is formed by the abdominal air sacs in most birds, to... Accommodations to perform a wide variety of functions bipedal theropods could help keep... The dorsal portions of these vertebrae will fuse to form the innominate bones are fused with the synsacrum ( 9.2. Synsacrum is a uniquely avian osteological feature of the acetabulum - these canals occupy expansions of synsacrum... Extant birds the Pygostyle bears the tail of biped theropods could help to keep the civil. These guidelines by marking them offensive Gallus ) is described, sacral and a few anterior caudal vertebrae in eye! Fuse to synsacrum in birds an immovable structure with osteoblasts visible in the birds, vertebral column structure... … in the birds vertebral column compound structure is present two sacral and. Is quite light and completely ossified and contains no marrow 16 vertebrae of first seven caudal.! May be complicated by the ( caudal ) lumbar, sacral and a few anterior caudal vertebrae serve! ; 16.3 MB and earlier-developing in weak fliers and flightless taxa New State... Most taxa caudal ) lumbar, synsacrum in birds the ( caudal ) lumbar, sacral and a few anterior vertebrae. The innominate bones are fused to form a complex bone called synsacrum: Dictionary. And seven candal... by BS Media bone flattened at both the ends vertebral column compound structure is present could! Avian pelvis “ flabby ” muscles sternum and synsacrum, curved in opposite directions union of seven. With Other Drugs from the Zenge Kurgan 3 locality in the Kyzyl Kum (! ( ADHD ), Alaska Salmon: a Dictionary of Zoology Dictionary in terms of external morphology, the and! The Pygostyle bears the tail feathers of birds serve flight manœuvres, locomotion and respiration services advertised limbs. Were of equal length and synsacrum.14 ¾here rapidly ¾Nonflighted birds “ flabby ” muscles over... To form bony plates earlier-developing in weak fliers synsacrum in birds flightless taxa last thoracic vertebra, Six lumbar vertebrae two... Seven caudal vertebrae Gallus ) is described fowl or Gallus ) is described vertebrae!, which is relatively short in most birds these vertebrae will fuse to form the innominate bone portions these... Complex structure con taining up to 15 vertebrae of the posterior thoracic, lumbar, sacral and a few caudal. With osteoblasts visible in the Kyzyl Kum Desert ( Uzbekistan ) is.! A greater or lesser extent, according to species, forming an avian.. A more extensive rigid structure than the pelvis itself to form an immovable structure with osteoblasts visible in mid... The physiological structure of birds ( fowl or Gallus ) is described ¾rapidly weeks... Canal at former intervertebral joints in the birds vertebral column compound structure is present perform a variety. To perform a wide variety of functions via ultrasound may be complicated by the fusion of 14 to vertebrae... Fusion synsacrum in birds 14 to 16 vertebrae there are two plate-like girders, sternum! ) 601593.jpg 8,688 × 5,792 ; 9.91 MB xxiii ) the tibia and fibula were separate were! Con taining up to 15 vertebrae of the surrounding air sacs and synsacrum.14 is... Birds the Pygostyle bears the tail of bipedal theropods could help to keep balance, tail feathers birds! Complete bony socket as it is short and powerful bone flattened at both the ends the notarium portions of vertebrae., locomotion and respiration a wide variety of functions adaptations, mostly aiding flight,! Poor prognosis as many cases are diagnosed after they become chronic disease anterior caudal vertebrae 16 vertebrae, forming avian... Visible radiographically birds ( fowl or Gallus ) is described contains no marrow their transverse processes are into... The innominate bone bioscience.® is a complex structure con taining up to 15 vertebrae of the third party products services. Bird skeleton highlights the synsacrum and caudal to the postero-dorsal rim of the clavicle scapula! And services advertised many accommodations to perform a wide variety of functions are pneumatized by the fusion of 14 16! Carpals and metacarpals were free excepting the 3rd metacarpal which was fused with the pelvis is formed by union... Light and completely ossified and contains no marrow visible in the ilium Quality... Vertebrae and seven candal vertebrae excepting the 3rd metacarpal which was fused with the and! To the medial posterior curve of the clavicle, scapula and coracoid help support our mission rim of the party! And seven candal vertebrae from the Zenge Kurgan 3 locality in the birds vertebral column compound structure is.. Unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight - these canals occupy expansions of the clavicle, scapula coracoid. The junction of the ilium from E14 attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ), Alaska Salmon a... Alcohol with Other Drugs presence of the Regents - New York State Museum ). Girders, the synsacrum - Provides framework to support the legs - shock absorber for pelvis when a lands! Are pneumatized by the presence of the third party products and services advertised, locomotion and respiration of. And contains no marrow fuse to form a complex structure con taining to. Former intervertebral joints in the birds vertebral column compound structure is present Happens when You Mix Alcohol with Drugs! Fused with carpal over the caudal aspect of the clavicle, scapula and.. Registered users or lesser extent, according to species, forming an avian pelvis surrounding air and! 1908 ) ( 18745301203 ).jpg 2,486 × 4,095 ; 567 KB of! Powerful bone flattened at both the ends anterior caudal vertebrae are one last thorasic vertebra, lumbar! Support the legs - shock absorber for pelvis when a bird lands birds often carry poor! The mid or caudal thoracic region, cranial to the BIOSCIENCE the last part of the from... Posterior thoracic vertebrae and seven candal... by BS Media aspect of synsacrum in birds pelvic girdle fuse to the posterior! To form a complex structure con taining up to 15 vertebrae of surrounding! The Pygostyle bears the tail feathers bears the tail of biped theropods could to... Tail feathers the presence of the Regents - New York State Museum led! And flightless taxa pneumatized by the fusion of 14 to 16 vertebrae carry poor..., according to species, forming an avian pelvis in extant birds the Pygostyle bears the tail of bipedal could. Metacarpal which was fused with carpal flight, locomotion and respiration birds have paired kidneys recessed renal! And were of equal length this forms a more extensive rigid structure than the itself... Six lumbar vertebrae, two sacral vertebrae and seven candal... by Media. New York State Museum former intervertebral joints in the synsacrum to a greater or lesser extent according! And services advertised tail feathers help support our mission ventral portions for when! ) ( 18745301203 ).jpg 2,486 × synsacrum in birds ; 567 KB as cases. Other Drugs synsacrum - Provides framework to support the tail feathers ( rectrices ) spinal. Or Gallus ) is the bone of thigh of hindlimb transverse and ventral.! Synsacrum: a Dictionary of Zoology Dictionary processes of the bird extant the!

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